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  • : The blog of Frank Beswick. It deals with my interests in religious, philosophical spiritual matters and horticulture/self-reliance
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July 13 2011 4 13 /07 /July /2011 08:54

Sockeyes are the third most common Pacific salmon species, ranging across the northern Pacific from Canada to Japan. Their life cycle begin in fresh water rivers and lake. They migrate to the sea before they return to the rivers to spawn and die. There are significant physical changes to the salmon's appearance prior to spawning.

Where the salmon live

Species

Sockeye salmon, known as red salmon or blueback salmon, is the third most common salmon species after pink and chum salmon. Its scientific name is Oncorhynchus nerka.

Sockeye

The wild sockeye salmon comes in two forms. The best-known is the sockeye. This is an anadromous fish, meaning that it spends much of its time in the sea, but that it returns to freshwater to breed, and in a sockeye's case, to die. Landlocked populations trapped in lakes are known as kokanee.

Range and physical description

The sockeye is found in the north Pacific mainly from British Colombia as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Arctic and sometimes as far south as Northern California. It also reaches the Japanese island of Hokkaido.

It is characteristically silver with a blue tinge. The kokanee varietes are smaller than the sockeye. Black kokanee, which were thought extinct, have been found to survive in a lake and are protected by law.

Life cycle

Females spawn

The females spawn in the gravel beds of freshwater streams and lakes. Both sexes find their way up stream by leaping up rapids. It is noteworthy that their preferred streams have freshwater lakes in the catchment area.

Mating

Before mating, physical changes occur. They turn red with a green head and have a dark stripe along the side. The males develop a hooked jaw, probably for fighting other males to compete for females. Sockeye also develop a hump. After mating, they die.

Eggs

Like other salmon species, the females create nests in the gravel river bed and deposit their eggs therein, while the males eject sperm onto them.The females then cover the beds. The young salmon hatches after a few months and spends up to three years in freshwater lakes. However, those which are in rivers tend to go to sea quite quickly.

Food

Ultimately, they migrate to the sea, where they spend four years feeding. After this time, they return for their mating. During their time at sea and in freshwater, they feed on zooplankton [microscopic animals] and shrimp. In the juvenile phase, they also eat insects that hover near the water's surface.

Salmon swimming upstream, seen from the viewing room of I believe th
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June 17 2011 6 17 /06 /June /2011 11:15

Deep sea animals are those that live at various depths below the Photic Zone, the region where there is sunlight. They include fish and invertebrates of various kinds, such as squid and crustaceans, but there are other, unique kinds of creature. All are adapted by evolution to the strange conditions in which they live.

Beyond the Photic Zone

A lightless world

The Photic Zone goes down to a few hundred metres, but light is merely a glimmer well before this.

The absence of light means that sea fish and other animals of the sea cannot find any plants or algae growing there to eat.

They feed on debris dropping from higher levels, much of which is animal remains.

Much of the sea life that lives here is predatory upon other deep sea fish.

Fish and invertebrates

The distance from the surface means that there are no air-breathing creatures, such as dolphins, save for the occasional deep-diving sperm whale.

Most are fish, but there are invertebrates, creatures without a skeleton, such as squid, and some crustaceans, creatures with shells.

Some creatures can be enormous, such as the giant squid that lurk in these depths and which sometimes approach the surface.

The deepest layers

These are the ocean trenches, long depressions in the ocean floor where tectonic plates are in collision.

Life finds it hard to thrive here, but there are worm-like creatures that scavenge for scraps and dead fish falling from above.

Hydrothermal vents, sometimes found in trenches, have a strange fauna.

These volcanic outlets on the seabed are home to a range of microscopic creatures, bizarre animals whose body chemistry is like nothing else on earth.

Evolutionary adaptation

Fish adaptations

One of the main fish adaptations is bioluminescence, the ability of creatures to provide their own light.

The viper fish is a scary fish that has rows of lights to attract other creatures, and one of them is attached to a long dangling lure near its mouth.

Lights attract not only predators, but mates.

Dr Beebe, the first person to descend into the depths, spotted a crustacean that squirted a bright fluid in the face of predators to blind them while it escaped

Other adaptations enable sea creatures to cope with the enormous pressures at great depth.

The deeper a sea creature lives, the more jelly-like its flesh is, and the more minimal its bone structure.

These ocean creatures have adapted to equalize the pressure inside their bodies with the pressure outside.

Final word

Scientists have discovered that the metabolic rate of deep sea creatures is slower than it is for animals of similar size at higher levels, which is to cope with the shortage of food so deep down

The giant squid | Source http://www. archive. org/details/popularscienWhat is Bioluminescence?Trieste
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May 9 2011 2 09 /05 /May /2011 10:23

Trout fishing can take place in streams, estuaries or at sea. You will need to acquire the right kit, learn the complex feeding habits of the trout and select the right kit for the time and place at which you are fishing. You will need to understand the sort of baits that attract trout to the hook. This article aims at giving you such information.

The basics

Trout habits

To catch trout, you should learn about their habits. They are a river fish which can move to the sea. However some trout, known as slob trout, stay in estuaries. Inland trout can be found in many streams, but the best fishing is in chalk streams or alkaline lakes. The two species are brown and rainbow trout, brown being the more common.

Equipment

Go to an angling shop and seek advice before buying. A nine foot rod is not all that you need. You should purchase lines, flies, weights and hooks. There are sinking lines, which enable you to take trout on the bottom, and floating ones, which enable you to stay near the surface. You use the latter when fly-fishing.

You will need to purchase a reel. Make sure that your purchases relate to equipment for trout angling. A variety of flies will be on sale. Buy a selection and be prepared to add to it over time.

Fishing secrets

To be a good angler, you need to learn knots, otherwise the hook comes off the line.

  • Get a good book on angling and practise knot making. You will also need to have casting skills. These are best learned in the company of a skilled person, so be prepared to take some fishing lessons.

  • At first go fishing in the company of an experienced person. Reading a fishing magazine will also help you.

Going fishing

Good anglers learn the habits of the fish. Trout are omnivorous. Sometimes they feed on the bottom, where they eat crustaceans and smaller fish. At these times, using a fly is useless. Baiting with a worm or snail would ensure a better catch.

Habits

At other times they approach the surface, and you can tell by the presence of ripples that reveal that a trout has just taken a fly.

Tips

  • At these times, attach an artificial fly to your hook and cast for the trout. You should try to aim your cast near the trout's location. If you feel the line go taut, this mean that a fish is pulling on it.

  • Let the hook sink in and then begin to reel.

  • Unless you can keep the trout, unhook it and throw it back.
Brown trout in the Arctikum museum, in Rovaniemi, Finland. Taimen ArktRainbow trout | Source Originally from http://en. wikipedia. org en. w
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